The following paragraphs are meant to summarize the activity
you did in class. Compare this summary to the one your teacher
asked you to write. For homework use your comparison to write
down all changes you would need to make to your summary to make
it accurate and complete. If you notice something that this
summary leaves out then please bring it to the attention of your
teacher. Your changes list should be typed and handed in to earn
credit for this assignment.
Oppositely charged particles attract one another.
The force of attraction depends on distance. Charges that are
closer are attracted with a stronger force than those farther
Atoms have electrons organized into shells at different
distances from the nucleus.
The nucleus is positively charged; electrons are negatively
The outermost electrons have a weaker force of attraction for
the nucleus when they are farther away.
Elements in the same group or family (the columns in the
periodic table) have a decreasing force of attraction on the
outermost electrons as you go from top to bottom.
Besides distance, the numerical value of the charge also
affects the strength of the force.
The more charges there are, the stronger the force.
The force of attraction is the same for all electrons the
same distance from a nucleus: the force is not split up and
shared in some way.
The force of attraction for outermost electrons for elements
in the same period (or row) of the periodic table increases as
you go left to right. This is because the outermost electrons are
at roughly the same distance from the nucleus but each element in
the row has one more proton than the element to its left. With
more protons, the elements farther to the right have a stronger
force of attraction for the outermost electrons.